Secrets of Adipose Tissue Function

  • Gökhan Cesur
  • Alpaslan Gökçimen

Received Date: 06.04.2012 Accepted Date: 16.05.2012 Meandros Med Dent J 2012;13(2):47-53

Adipose tissue is a complex, essential, and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, not only in storing triglycerides, but also by secreting adipokines that control feeding, thermogenesis, immunity, and neuroendocrine function via responding to nutritional, neural, and hormonal signals. Adipose tissue secretes bioactive peptides, termed ‘adipokines', which act locally and distally through theirautocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Adipokines include hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, visfatin, apelin, adipsin, acylation stimulating protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, proteins of the renin-angiotensin system, metallothionein and fasting-induced adipose factor. There is already considerable evidence of links between increased production of some adipocyte factors and the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity. Adipose tissue excess or obesity, particularly in the visceral compartment, is associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory states. The aim of this review presents an overview of the endocrine functions of adipose tissue.

Keywords: Adipose tissue, adipokines, metabolism